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Varronian dating

Marcus Terentius Varro was born into a plebeian family of equestrian rank in 116 BCE near Reate (mod. He led a rather illustrious civil and military career, becoming quaestor, tribune of the plebs, aedile, and praetor, probably in or close to the years in which he was allowed to run. Cosconius in the Third Dalmatian War in 78–77, which saw total Roman domination over Illyria and the Delmatae.

During this period Varro was most famous for creating, in tandem with Julius Caesar’s reforms to the calendar (and thus the “Julian calendar”), a chronology of Roman events that has since become standard; he coined the term (“from the founding of the city”) and calculated the founding of Rome by Romulus to the year 753, which has since remained the traditional date for the city’s foundation. , but unlike Cato’s treatise, it is organized according to theme.

Book one concerns the cultivation of plants, book two livestock and dogs, and book three is on miscellaneous animals (chicken, bee, fish, and dormice). Varro’s is even more impressive, twenty-five books covering the Latin language, from its history and etymologies of certain words to grammatical and syntactical usage.

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Varro ties his farming discourse to public life at Rome, suggesting that agriculture is both an everyday concern for his elite interlocutors and intimately connected to the political and social issues of the day.

His use of satire is considered in more general terms, such as puns and a focus on food and dining.

Then, the 643 monks were accommodated by the community of San Colombano in Bobbio, and later in the various monasteries and abbeys colombaniane in Italy and Europe, spreading enormously Benedictine communities.

Rebuilt around 717 under the impetus of Petronace Montecassino Abbey was destroyed a second time by the Saracens in 883, and was rebuilt by Pope Agapito II only in 949.

Looking at the RR’s connections with philosophy, particularly Cicero’s works, he points out that while Varro follows certain conventions of contemporary philosophical dialogues, he stages and populates his dialogues so as to encourage political reflection.

In contrast to Cicero’s political dialogues set in the countryside in the context of elite otium, Varro’s three agricultural dialogues are presented as impromptu affairs which come about through the meeting of friends on public occasions, mostly in Rome itself—Book 1 is set at the Temple of Tellus during the festival of the Sementivae, Book 2 on the Parilia among Romans living in Epirus, including some who are present in Greece because of military duties, and Book 3 in the Villa Publica during aedilician elections.

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